D [DIRECT] : Students are directed by the teacher to scan the title, chapter headings, and/or illustrations of the text. In order to activate their thinking and prior knowledge, students are then asked, based upon the title and any other information, to make predictions about the content of the text before they begin reading.

R [READING] : The text should be broken up into select stopping points, each time having the students reflect on what they have read and evaluate and/or adjust their predictions.

T [THINKING] : After they have finished reading the text, the teacher should have students go back through the text and think about their predictions. Students should confirm or adjust the accuracy of their predictions by finding supporting statements in the text. The teacher should help the students think critically by asking them questions such as:
  • How do you view your previous predictions now?
  • How did the text end up proving your predictions?
  • What did you read that caused you to alter or nullify your predictions?


Directed Reading Thinking Activities (DR-TA) are used in the English classroom to:
  1. Have students make predictions and judgments about what they are reading.
  2. Allow students to read with a purpose.
  3. Allow students read to confirm and revise predicts they have made or are making.
  4. Guide students to use their own experiences to help them comprehend the text or the message of the author.